Stikord og sætninger til eksamenstekster
Tekst: “David and Seamus”.
- David is a protestant.
- David hears terrible stories about catholic priests in the pub.
- He can’t understand why Catholics want the same rule in Northern Ireland as in Ireland.
- He has never talked with any Catholics on his shift.
- He finds catholics untrustworthy – they smile, but still want to cut the link to Britain.
- Seamus is catholic.
- Seamus does not understand the protestants. They have all the power and the jobs and won’t give either to the Catholics.
- Seamus has joined the local vigilante group which patrols the streets at night.
- Nothern Ireland is divided in protestant and catholic communities. Especially in Belfast and in Londonderry.
- The catholics live by the Roman Catholic Churchs rule. They dont use preservatives, they have large families and the most of them would like Northern Ireland to be a part of Ireland.
- The protestants live by protestant church rules – a more british way of life. Most of them would like Northern Ireland to be under British rule or – at least – to be dominated by the protestant way of life.
- The catholics and protestants have different names, schools, jobs, adresses, sports, songs, annual highlights and traditions, politics and terrorist/freedom organisations.
- They often argue about – if not fight over – housing areas, jobs and politics.
- The Catholics terror organisations are IRA and INLA, while the protestans have UVF, UFF and UDA.
- The British government have had soldiers in all disturbed areas in Northern Ireland since the sixties and is a third part in the conflict – but with more protestants on their side.
Tekst: “Terrorists or Freedomfighters.”
- It’s a question of perspective.
- An IRA man is considered a terrorist by the british or protestants, but for the catholic he is a freedom fighter.
- A protestant can be a terrorist if he acts violently against catholic civilians, but by doing so, he is considered a freedom fighter by some protestants.
- In the movie “In the name of the father” it is clear, that the concept ‘terrorist’ was used by british police, to make sure to reach the goal of getting confessions and alowence to arest the son and father.
Tekst: “Who are the amish”?
- They came from Switzerland in 16. century.
- They wanted baptism to be for grown ups only (no child baptism).
- They were known as menonites.
- They wanted a strict church.
- They refused to carry arms and participate in war.
- They stayed away from people who had been expelled from church (shunning).
- They speak Pensylvanian dutch.
- They live in their own communities and on their own farms.
- They live in an old fashioned way – have no zippers, no rubber ties, no radio or TV, no dishwasher etcetera.
- They make a lot of their own crafts and art.
- Today there are 75.000 in North America and 500.000 wolrd wide.
Tekst: “Young people and shunning.”
- Shunning means that amish are not allowed to be together with people who have been expelled.
- If amish young people decide to live the amish way (after rumdspringa) and not a more liberal religious way, and later breakes the amish rules for marriage and lifestyle, they get expelled from the amish society. (Shunning).
- ‘Rumspringa’ is a period given to amish youngsters for they to try out a normal living and hereafter decide if they want to live in the amish way.
Tekst: “Ian’s Amish adventure”.
- Ians mother is dead and his father has taken a job for six months up north. While he is being driven to his aunt in Toronto, the car hit an amish boggy. The amish man looses his leg and Ian is brought to the amish family, where he stays.
- Ian has stayed at the amish family, Bender.
- He decides to help the family, since Mr. Bender has lost his leg.
- He contacts John – the son – to persuade him to take over his fathers role on the farm.
- Ian considers becomming amish and stay at the farm instead of going to his aunts house.
Nelson Mandela and south Africa
Tekst: “Prisson life on Robben Island”
- In Robben prison Mandela was a D prisoner – one with the fewest priveliges – he was black.
- The prisoners wore shorts and sandals and slept on mats and had no toilet.
- The prisoners could no talk to each other.
- A british journalist came to see Mandela from The Daily Telegraph.
- After three months Winnie could visit him. They talked for half an hour. Next time was two years later.
- The prisoners worked in a limestone quarry.
- The prison became known as Mandela University.
- Helen Suzman from South Africas Parliament visited Mandela, and slowly things got better.
Tekst: “Free at last”
- Demonstrations against apartheid continued all over South Africa.
- USA boycotted South Africa.
- ANC-leaders lived in exile in Zambia.
- February 1992 De Klerk said he would end apartheid, allow all political parties and free political prisoners.
- The 11 february 1992 Mandela left prison after 10.000 days.
- At Soweto stadium he held a speech in front of 120.000 people.
- Mandela wanted one man – one vote – while the government wanted equal rigths for whites and black. Mandela was persuaded to lay down ANC weapons.
- By june 1991 apartheid was officially stopped.
Tekst: “Facts on South Africa”.
- South Africa is divided into 9 provinces.
- It is the tip of the African continent and neighbour to Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
- Its population is 31 million blacks and 5 million whites, 3 million coloured and 1 million Indians.
- The dutch started to setle in the country around 1652.
- They made Boers colonies.
- The dutch remained in control until 1795, from here the british took over.
- South Africa was established as a state in 1910.
- Apartheid became official rule in 1948: Blacks not allowed to live near whites, blacks not allowed to use whites facilities and 3 million were thrown out of their houses.
- 1955 ANC (Aqfrican National Congress) produced the Freedom Charter and started the armed struggle against apartheid and white authorities.
- 1976 the black children revolted leading to the killing of many blacks.
- Steve Biko became famous for his fight against apartheid.
- 1990 president De Klerk released Nelson Mandela
Tekst: “Homelessness – the facts”.
- Homelessnes has increased dramatically the last ten years in the UK.
- Many young people are affected because of conditions at home with the family.
- Homelessness is by definition if: A. You live with no kind of shelter, for example on the streets. B. You have shelter but it is not home. C. You live at a friends place. D. You live at a hostel.
- Numbers of families staying in bed and breakfast accomodation has doubled the last three years.
- 47% homeless live outside the big cities.
- Authorities use hostels, womens refuges, private dweelings, short-life property and mobile homes to help homeless.
- Unofficial homelessness is not included in official figures and typically covers pwople in the street (sleeping rough), at friends places, in hostles, squatters, hostels who are not registrated.
- Hidden homelessness includes people staying at friends places and at home with no will to be there.
- To sell The Big Issue you must prove that you are homeless.(Receipts from hostels, letter of referal).
- Vendors undergo a training session and complete a training period, learning basic rules and conduct.
- They need to declare their earning to Department of Social Security.
- They must have a badge to be able to sell “The Big Issue”.
- In London vendors receive ten papers, whereafter they have to buy the next papers to sell at a 40-50% higher price.
- Vendors are not employed by The Big Issue but are retailers and responsible for their own tax, time and book keeping.
- There are 3.000 Vendors in London and 8 – 10.000 nation wide in the UK, but only 500 active in London and 2.000 nation wide.
Tekst: “The Big Issue – significant dates”.
- The Big Issue is hard-hitting journalism and critical writing about art and entertainment.
- The inspiration came from the magazine Street News – the homless’ newspaper in New York.
- The Big Issue was launched in september 1991 as a monthly magazine in London.
- June 1993 The Big Issue went weekly and started being published in Manchester, Glasgow, Bristol and Birmingham until it spread to Sydney, Cape Town and Los Angeles.
- In 1996 big star interviews became a part of The Big Issue.(Posh, Beckham, Moss…)
- The section ‘Street Lights’ is the only place, where homeless can write in a paper.